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Anti-Oxidant Enzyme Profile

Antioxidant enzymes (usually glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase) are known to protect the body from oxidative damage, and increasing their levels or activity can confer protection from oxidative damage.

Research analysis led by Kamal Patel.
All content reviewed by the Examine.com Team. Published: Jul 5, 2013
Last Updated:

Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what supplements affect anti-oxidant enzyme profile
Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Notes
grade-b Notable Very High See all 7 studies
Although the exact enzyme that increases is not overly reliable (SOD, glutathione, and catalase), all three enzymes have individually been noted to be increased and they tend to do so to a large degree.
grade-b - High See all 4 studies
A lone study noted an increase in glutathione peroxidase, but the majority of the evidence finds no significant influence on antioxidant enzymes in the body (glutathione, SOD, or catalase).
grade-c Notable - See study
The lone study to assess superoxide dismutase found a doubling after 8 weeks of supplementation (in older individuals); needs replication in youth
grade-c Notable - See study
NAC supplementation is able to reliably increase glutathione concentrations in cells specifically
grade-c Minor - See study
At least in persons with impaired glucose tolerance and/or type II diabetes, L-arginine appears to have an indirect antioxidant role and increase superoxide dismutase concentrations
grade-c Minor - See study
No remarkable effects following oral ingestion of chlorella, although some may be present
grade-c Minor Moderate See 2 studies
May increase levels of antioxidant enzymes, does not appear to be reliable
grade-c Minor Moderate See all 3 studies
There appears to be an increase in glutathione related enzymes in red and white blood cells following ingestion of garlic supplements.
grade-c
Minor
- See 2 studies
Superoxide dismutase and glutathione have been noted to be increased with supplementation of ginkgo (240mg EGb-761) in persons with metabolic syndrome, while the abnormal elevation of these enzymes in schizophrenia is attenuated; essentially, a beneficial modulation appears to exist
grade-c Minor Very High See 2 studies
An increase in all three main enzymes (SOD, glutathione peroxidase, catalase) has been detected following ingestion of carnitine
grade-c Minor Moderate See 2 studies
Mixed effects on antioxidant enzymes, but there appears to be potential for melatonin to increase their content
grade-c Minor Very High See 2 studies
Appears to induce the activity of the enzyme known as glutathione peroxidase
grade-c Minor Very High See 2 studies
An increase in all three main antioxidant enzymes (SOD, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase) appear to occur to a small degree following ingestion of Panax ginseng
grade-c Minor - See study
An increase in superoxide dismutase has been noted with Shilajit consumption
grade-c Minor Very High See 2 studies
Although increases have been noted in glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, it is difficult to assess potency thereof as there are no active controls and the two studies heterogenous.
grade-c Minor - See study
An increase in glutathione peroxidase has been detected
grade-c Minor Very High See 2 studies
An increase in antioxidant enzymes have been noted in elderly persons
grade-c Minor Moderate See 2 studies
There appears to be an influence on the enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, but this requires a certain genotype to occur
grade-c Minor Very High See 2 studies
Increased levels of glutathione are secondary to the Cysteine content and can be mimicked with all dietary sources of L-cysteine or supplemental N-acetylcysteine
grade-c Minor - See study
There appears to be an increase in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase after supplementation of zinc in otherwise healthy persons.
grade-c - - See 2 studies
Mixed effects on antioxidant enzymes, with decreases in glutathione peroxidase and increases in catalase with no effect on SOD
grade-c - - See 2 studies
grade-c - - See study
grade-c - Very High See 2 studies
No significant influences on superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase are noted with ganoderma polysaccharide ingestion
grade-c - - See study
grade-c - - See study
Antioxidant enzymes do not appear to be increased in red blood cells in response to 10mg riboflavin supplementation.
grade-c - Very High See 2 studies
The levels of antioxidant enzymes in red blood cells (glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase) does not appear to be influenced with supplementation of vitamin E.
grade-d Minor - See study
One study noted a modest increase in superoxide dismutase in healthy participants.
grade-d Minor - See study
An increase in seminal glutathione has been noted to reach 26.7% in otherwise infertile men.
grade-d Minor - See study
There appears to be a mild increase in glutathione peroxidase with no significant influence on catalase nor SOD in otherwise healthy men.
grade-d Minor Very High See 2 studies
Appears to increase the primary three antioxidant enzymes (glutathione, catalase, and SOD) in both healthy and diseased persons
grade-d - - See study
grade-d - - See study
Limited evidence has failed to find any significant changes in antioxidant enzyme profiles in the red blood cells of those given rose hip extract