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Blood Pressure

A relation of how much blood is in your veins and how much diameter the vein is given to accomodate the blood, and measured in systolic over diastolic (average of 120/80). Many supplements interact, either acutely or chronically, with Blood Pressure.

Our evidence-based analysis on blood pressure features 8 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by Kamal Patel.
All content reviewed by the Examine.com Team. Published: Feb 6, 2013
Last Updated:

Frequently Asked Questions about Blood Pressure

The downsides of caffeine intake
Caffeine can have a determinetal impact on your blood pressure, eye pressure, and acid reflux.

Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what supplements affect blood pressure
Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Notes
grade-a
Minor
- See all 23 studies
While not affecting everybody, there appears to be a decrease in blood pressure when assessing mildly hypertensive people; the increase in blood flow seen in healthy people is not accompanied by a decrease in blood pressure, while the xanthine (caffeine) content of chocolate products may cause a mild and transient increase in blood pressure in some subjects.
grade-a Minor Very High See all 8 studies
May decrease blood pressure in persons with high blood pressure, but does not appear to have efficacy in persons with normal blood pressure
grade-b Notable High See all 12 studies
Garlic supplementation appears to reduce blood pressure, and the magnitude is quite respectable in persons with hypertension (around 10 points systolic or 8-10%) whereas there is a smaller but present reduction in persons with normal blood pressure.
grade-b Notable Very High See all 6 studies
The decrease in blood pressure seen with roselle tea and supplements is notable and is greater than that seen with other supplements
grade-b Notable Moderate See all 9 studies
There appears to be a significant reduction in blood pressure assuming one of two conditions is met, either the subject is low in magnesium levels in the body (deficient) or if the subject has elevated blood pressure (140/90 or above), with the latter not requiring a deficiency to precede the blood pressure reducing effects
grade-b Notable Moderate See all 7 studies
Appears to be a fairly potent blood pressure reducing agent during periods of high blood pressure (at rest during disease states or during exercise in healthy persons) without having a reducing effect when blood pressure is normalized. There may be no effect on people on hypertensive medications, though.
grade-b Notable High See all 4 studies
One study assessing the potency in hypertensive persons noted it was comparable to Captopril, and olive leaf appears to be potent when it can reduce blood pressure. It does not appear to reduce blood pressure in normotensive persons, however
grade-b Minor Moderate See all 5 studies
Arginine has been implicated in reducing blood pressure, but the degree of reduction does not appear to be too remarkable and it is unreliable in doing so
grade-b Minor Very High See all 6 studies
Tends to increase blood pressure more than it doesn't, which is in part due to caffeine tolerance (naive users experiencing increases in blood pressure at higher rates) or genetics; the increase in blood pressure tends to be transient and low in magnitude
grade-b Minor Low See all 6 studies
There appears to be an interaction between CoQ10 and blood pressure, but it is not wholly reliable and uncertain whether this is at the level of the cardiac tissue or at the level of the endothelium (both plausible). Magnitude of reductions don't appear too remarkable.
grade-b Minor High See all 9 studies
May decrease blood pressure, but more contextual evidence is required, such as enough studies to properly compare effects in hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and healthy people.
grade-b Minor Low See all 5 studies
There may be an acute increase in blood pressure seen with ephedrine intake, although this does not appear to be overly reliable; long-term usage of ephedrine does not seem to alter blood pressure, and may reduce it secondary to weight loss
grade-b Minor Very High See 2 studies
The meta-analysis conducted noted a pooled reduction of 1.54mmHg systolic associated with standard doses of grape seed extract; something, but a small reduction.
grade-b Minor Very High See all 6 studies
There may be a slight decrease in blood pressure in women with PCOS who are having it treated with inositol therapy.
grade-b
Minor
- See all 9 studies
A single use in a new user will increase diastolic blood pressure (no real influence on systolic), and this is subject to tolerance. Heavy users will not experience this acute increase anymore and may instead have a decrease in diastolic blood pressure.
grade-b Minor Very High See all 4 studies
An acute decrease in blood pressure occurs following melatonin ingestion, but this decrease in temporary and abolished upon standing; likely not practically relevant in an ambulatory population
grade-b Minor Low See all 3 studies
There may be a slight increase in systolic blood pressure with acute usage of modafinil (when measured at its peak blood levels), although it does not appear to modify basal blood pressure values
grade-b Minor Moderate See all 4 studies
The reduction in blood pressure is only seen in hypertensives and very mild (1-3mmHg), likely not practically relevant at all.
grade-b Minor High See all 4 studies
Pycnogenol has shown mixed effects on blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. While the majority of trials examined reported modest blood-pressure lowering effects, one randomized controlled trial found no effect on blood pressure. The mixed results suggest that pycnogenol blood-pressure lowering effects may be dependent on the underlying cause of hypertension. More research is needed to determine which individuals with hypertension may benefit from supplementation.
grade-b Minor Moderate See all 4 studies
There appears to be a reduction in blood pressure associated with stevia only in persons with high blood pressure, this may be a transient effect that is normalized upon supplement cessation.
grade-b Minor Very High See all 3 studies
Some correlational and intervention studies note that higher serum vitamin D is associated with mildly lower blood pressure, although the evidence is somewhat conflicted and effects that have been found are rather small.
grade-b
Minor
- See all 3 studies
Blood pressure has been differentially affected by vitamin E supplementation, thought to be associated with whether it is an antioxidant or a prooxidant.
grade-b - Very High See all 6 studies
The majority of evidence using intravenous or oral supplements fail to find an influence, and the one study to suggest a reduction was also confounded with weight loss (known to reduce blood pressure). It can be assumed that ALA has no significant influence on blood pressure even in studies where blood flow is altered
grade-b - Very High See all 8 studies
The majority of evidence does not support a role for chromium in reducing blood pressure any more than placebo.
grade-b - Very High See all 4 studies
Does not appear to significantly influence blood pressure.
grade-b - Very High See all 7 studies
Despite the influence on blood flow and circulation, there does not appear to be a significant influence on blood pressure
grade-b - Very High See all 3 studies
Overall, studies don't suggest a notable effect on blood pressure. Some studies have found small reductions, and one has found a large reduction, but the evidence is inconsistent. A meta-analysis didn't find a notable influence of dose or study duration. More research is needed, particularly in people with severe hypertension.
grade-b - High See all 3 studies
It is possible that Tyrosine can reduce blood pressure during stress, but the one study that noted this also noted a reduction in blood pressure in the stressed placebo; other studies have found no influence.
grade-b - Moderate See all 4 studies
Mixed effects on blood pressure
grade-b - High See all 4 studies
Although there may be a slight blood pressure reducing effect in persons with the highest blood pressure, overall there is not a significant reducing effect of panax ginseng
grade-b - High See all 3 studies
No real significant effect of psyllium on blood pressure directly, although there may be an insignificant reduction seen with correcting other parameters of metabolic syndrome.
grade-b - High See all 3 studies
No acute alterations in blood pressure following Quercetin supplementation
grade-b - Very High See all 7 studies
The one study in diabetics found a reduction in blood pressure, and due to no studies in hypertensives all other studies have failed to find an influence on blood pressure.
grade-c Notable - See study
The increase in blood pressure with 1,3-DMAA was fairly notable and of concern, with 75mg paired with caffeine (common in preworkout supplements) increasing systolic by up to 20%.
grade-c Notable - See study
The decrease in systolic blood pressure with chlorogenic acid has reached 15 points systolic in hypertensives (150mmHg systolic initially) and appears to maintain at that level until supplement cessation.
grade-c Notable - See study
Decrease in blood pressure noted with green coffee extract ingestion, due to the chlorogenic acid component. Degree of reduction reached 10mmHg (from just above 145mmHg to just above 135mmHg) and is quite notable.
grade-c Notable - See study
The increase in blood pressure noted with hoodia gordonii in otherwise healthy persons reached 5.9-15.9mmHg systolic and 4.6-11.5mmHg diastolic; a worrying increase
grade-c Notable Moderate See all 3 studies
Insufficient evidence to fully evaluate the effects on blood pressure, but given how 6 weeks supplementation reduced both systolic and diastolic in nonhypertensive persons by about 11/6 points it is notable
grade-c Minor - See all 3 studies
A decrease in blood pressure has been noted in persons at risk for cardiovascular disease (6% systolic and 4% diastolic), but this may be limited to high risk individuals only.
grade-c Minor - See study
One study in older adults noted, as a side-effect, that systolic blood pressure was slightly reduced
grade-c Minor Moderate See all 3 studies
Might reduce blood pressure in some instances but does not appear remarkably potent.
grade-c Minor Moderate See all 3 studies
A decrease in blood pressure is noted secondary to increasing plasma arginine (and thus increasing nitric oxide), but this blood pressure reduction may only occur in those with hypertension or prehypertension
grade-c Minor Very High See 2 studies
A possible reduction in blood pressure in overweight persons with supplementation of ecklonia cava
grade-c Minor - See study
In obese, premenopausal women, fucoxanthin may lower blood pressure; this is confounded with overall weight loss, however
grade-c Minor - See study
Possible decrease in blood pressure noted with green tea catechin consumption
grade-c Minor - See study
A decrease in blood pressure has been noted with weight loss associated with this supplement; no inherent blood pressure reduction has been demonstrated
grade-c Minor - See study
May reduce blood pressure
grade-c Minor - See study
A reduction in blood pressure is noted alongside reduced autonomic nervous system activation and increased relaxation; this is likely to not affect the body over the long term
grade-c Minor - See study
Has been noted to reduce blood pressure in persons with hyperlipidemia
grade-c Minor - See study
A possible blood pressure reducing effect seen with nattokinase, notable but with high variability
grade-c Minor - See study
Possibly a small effect in persons with high blood pressure.
grade-c Minor - See study
Pterostilbene appears to reduce blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic adults, and the addition of grape seed extract (which mitigates adverse cholesterol effects) adds to the benefits to blood pressure.
grade-c Minor - See study
May reduce blood pressure in hyperlipidemics, relation to weight loss not known
grade-c Minor - See study
Blood pressure has been reduced with resveratrol in persons with high blood pressure; influence on otherwise healthy persons unknown
grade-c Minor - See study
A small reduction in blood pressure was noted, possibly secondary to reductions in CNS activity
grade-c Minor Very High See 2 studies
A mild (3.7%) decrease in systolic blood pressure has been noted in obese persons given supplementation of rose hip.
grade-c Minor - See study
A decrease in blood pressure was noted in otherwise healthy (normotensive) men following 26 weeks of saffron supplementation at 60mg daily, although this was thought to possibly be related to chronic toxicity of the higher than normal dose.
grade-c Minor - See study
A decrease in systolic blood pressure resulted in response to clary sage aromatherapy, to a small degree and likely not able to exert long-term benefit (probably more indicative of short-term CNS depression)
grade-c Minor - See study
A small decrease in blood pressure has been noted with sesamin supplementation
grade-c Minor Very High See 2 studies
A decrease in blood pressure has been noted in hypertensive subjects in one study. Another larger study in normotensive subjects failed to find a significant change. More studies in hypertensive subjects are needed before confidence in the effect is warranted.
grade-c Minor Very High See all 3 studies
There appears to be a reduction in blood pressure in the same subjects who have a reduction in homocysteine, those with the MTHFR 677TT genetic mutation.
grade-c Minor Moderate See all 5 studies
May attenuate the increase due to acute hyperglycemia or over the course of 4 months in type 2 diabetics, though the evidence is mixed and more research is needed.
grade-c Minor Very High See 2 studies
Appears to increase blood pressure, which may aid the proerectile effects (as it is an acute increase) but is a cardiovascular risk factor
grade-c - - See study
Insufficient evidence to support changes in blood pressure following 7-keto supplementation.
grade-c - - See study
No significant interaction with blood pressure during exercise has been noted with acute supplementation of alanylglutamine
grade-c - - See study
6-12mg anatabine does not appear to significantly influence blood pressure in otherwise healthy persons.
grade-c - - See study
grade-c - Very High See all 4 studies
A small decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure has been noted in one study, but the evidence is very inconsistent and limited to people without hypertension.
grade-c - - See 2 studies
grade-c - - See study
No significant influence on blood pressure has been noted with chronic bacopa ingestion
grade-c - - See study
No significant evidence to support alterations in blood pressure.
grade-c - - See study
grade-c - - See study
No significant influence on blood pressure in otherwise healthy persons given an acute dosage.
grade-c - - See study
No significant influence on blood pressure with up to 300mg of the fruit extract daily over two months
grade-c - Very High See 2 studies
No significant influence on blood pressure was noted with coleus supplementation
grade-c - Very High See all 4 studies
No significant interaction between CLA and blood pressure
grade-c - - See study
No significant alterations in long term blood pressure, although acute spikes are possible due to the ephedrine and caffeine components
grade-c - - See study
No significant known effects on blood pressure
grade-c - - See study
grade-c - - See study
No significant influence on blood pressure noted with reishi
grade-c - - See study
grade-c - - See 2 studies
grade-c - - See study
No significant interactions with blood pressure
grade-c - - See study
No significant alterations in blood pressure noted with PS supplementation
grade-c - - See study
No significant effects yet noted on blood pressure
grade-c - - See study
Despite ACE inhibition, Rooibos tea does not appear to significantly reduce blood pressure
grade-c - - See study
No significant alterations in blood pressure observed over long term supplementation with Royal Jelly
grade-c - Very High See 2 studies
No significant influence on blood pressure noted with long term chia ingestion
grade-c - - See study
Three weeks Kanna usage does not appear to influence blood pressure compared to placebo.
grade-c - - See study
No significant effect has been detected on blood pressure
grade-c - - See study
No significant influence on blood pressure
grade-c - - See study
grade-c - Very High See 2 studies
Despite the improvement in blood flow, no significant influence on blood pressure
grade-c - - See study
No significant influence of betaine supplementation on blood pressure is currently known.
grade-c - - See study
In otherwise healthy subjects, niacin does not appear to influence blood pressure.
grade-c - Very High See 2 studies
Insufficient evidence to support the blood pressure reducing effects of whey protein
grade-c - - See study
No significant influences on blood pressure have been noted (although this may be due to it being underresearched; Mate may follow the same motifs as caffeine ingestion)
grade-c - - See study
Blood pressure does not appear to be modified with zinc supplementation.
grade-d Notable - See study
Decreases of blood pressure in unhealthy persons using eclipta alba have occurred by 15% (mean arterial pressure)
grade-d Notable Moderate See 2 studies
Has the potential to increase blood pressure secondary to increasing cortisol; this is notable as it seems hypertensives are at greater risk from an adverse reaction to high dose licorice and as such should exert caution when using this herb (related to the glycyrrhizin content, and deglycyrrhizinated supplements should not have the same risk)
grade-d Minor - See study
One study showed a slight decrease in systolic blood pressure only in people with the metabolic syndrome who were given berberine 0.5g three times a day for three months.
grade-d Minor - See study
One study has noted a reduction in blood pressure associated with kava, of minor magnitude
grade-d Minor Moderate See 2 studies
A slight reduction in blood pressure has been noted in dyslipidemic obese men with TTA supplementation
grade-d Minor - See study
In instances where thiamine is deficient, replenishment of thiamine appears to cause a modest decrease in blood pressure.
grade-d - - See study
No significant influence on blood pressure
grade-d - - See study
grade-d - - See study
In otherwise healthy athletic men, there is no significant influence of supplementation over eight weeks on blood pressure.
grade-d - - See study
grade-d - - See study
No significant influence on blood pressure noted

References

  1. Verster JC, Koenig J. Caffeine intake and its sources: A review of national representative studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. (2018)
  2. Guessous I, Eap CB, Bochud M. Blood pressure in relation to coffee and caffeine consumption. Curr Hypertens Rep. (2014)
  3. Nurminen ML, et al. Coffee, caffeine and blood pressure: a critical review. Eur J Clin Nutr. (1999)
  4. Noordzij M, et al. Blood pressure response to chronic intake of coffee and caffeine: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Hypertens. (2005)
  5. Greenberg JA, Chow G, Ziegelstein RC. Caffeinated coffee consumption, cardiovascular disease, and heart valve disease in the elderly (from the Framingham Study). Am J Cardiol. (2008)
  6. Li M, et al. The effect of caffeine on intraocular pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. (2011)
  7. Chandrasekaran S, Rochtchina E, Mitchell P. Effects of caffeine on intraocular pressure: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. J Glaucoma. (2005)
  8. Lohsiriwat S, Puengna N, Leelakusolvong S. Effect of caffeine on lower esophageal sphincter pressure in Thai healthy volunteers. Dis Esophagus. (2006)