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Cell Adhesion Factors

Cell Adhesion Factors are small targets expressed by blood vessels and organs to attract immune cells (and 'adhere' them to the cell) and draw them into tissue. Suppressing these factors is immunosuppressive, but may alleviate artherosclerosis.

Research analysis led by Kamal Patel.
All content reviewed by the Examine.com Team. Published: Jul 5, 2013
Last Updated:

Things To Know & Note

Also Known As

sCAM-1, vCAM-1

Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what supplements affect cell adhesion factors
Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Low See all 8 studies
Appears to be able to reduce cellular adhesion factors (that draw immune cells into tissue to aid in inflammatory processes, reducing these is immunosuppressive) in elderly persons, while slightly increasing expression in youth
grade-b - High See all 3 studies
While a decrease in P-selectin has been noted with low dose (100mg) γ-tocopherol, most studies have failed to find an influence of vitamin E supplementation on adhesion factors.
grade-c Notable - See study
A decrease was noted in CD40 and MCP1 adhesion factors, and this is notable as this downregulation was dose-dependently related to ingested tyrosol/hydroxytyrosol and may explain the reduced LDL oxidation
grade-c Minor Very High See 2 studies
Decreases in cell adhesion factors have been noted, which may underlie therapeutic benefits towards artherosclerosis of curcumin supplementation.
grade-c Minor Very High See 2 studies
There is a mild decrease in E-selectin and perhaps sCAM-1 seen with oral supplementation of hesperidin, but not ICAM or VCAM; this is thought to be a mechanism underlying atherogenesis prevention.
grade-c Minor - See study
Even in healthy persons, cell adhesion factor expression on immune cells appears to be reduced with supplementation of the herb at 720mg.
grade-c Minor - See study
Isolated formononetin has been noted to reduce circulating VCAM-1 levels by approximately 11% in one study.
grade-c Minor - See study
Expression of VCAM-1 has been noted to be decreased
grade-c Minor - See study
In persons who were probably zinc deficient, supplementation of zinc is able to reduce cellular adhesion factors and the risk for artherosclerosis.
grade-c - - See study
Cell adhesion factors (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) are unaffected with chromium supplementation in nondiabetic obese adults.
grade-c - Very High See all 4 studies
As a general statement, supplementation of cocoa flavanols does not appear to appreciably reduce cellular adhesion factors (ex. ICAM-1 or VCAM-1) when compared to placebos with low cocoa flavanol content.
grade-c - - See study
Cellular adhesion factors on immune cells do not appear to be modified with colostrum relative to whey protein.
grade-c - - See study
Select cellular adhesion factors (iCAM and vCAM) do not appear to be influenced in their quantity when niacin is supplemented.
grade-d Minor - See study
ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 decreased, not to a remarkable degree that would be indicative of immunosuppression.
grade-d - - See study
No significant alterations in cell adhesion factors (sCAM-1 and vCAM-1)
grade-d - - See study
No significant alterations in VCAM-1 levels in menopausal women, although a trend towards reduction was noted