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General Oxidation

General oxidation refers to a collection of biomarkers in the blood that are thought to reflect oxidative damage to the body. A reduction in these biomarkers is antioxidative, while an increase in prooxidative.

Research analysis led by Kamal Patel.
All content reviewed by the Examine.com Team. Published: Jul 5, 2013
Last Updated:

Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what supplements affect general oxidation
Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Notes
grade-b Minor High See all 6 studies
Appears to reduce biomarkers of oxidation
grade-b Minor Moderate See all 6 studies
A potential yet unreliable decrease in biomarkers of oxidation in serum following ingestion.
grade-b Minor High See all 6 studies
Appears to generally reduce pro-oxidative biomarkers in the body
grade-b Minor Very High See all 5 studies
Prooxidative biomarkers appear to be reduced following long term supplementation of curcumin
grade-b Minor Low See all 3 studies
A decrease sometimes occurs, although this has not been noted in all instances. The decrease in healthy persons is minor and lasts for about 5 hours, whereas it may be more prominent in persons at risk for cardiovascular disease
grade-b Minor Moderate See all 7 studies
Surprisingly mixed influences on biomarkers of oxidation, with either a decrease or no significant influence the majority of the time (with limited evidence to hint at an increase being possible)
grade-b Minor High See all 6 studies
Supplementation of vitamin E appears to reduce oxidation in plasma, requiring over 500mg (if not more) α-tocopherol in states where there is abnormal elevations of oxidation. Vitamin E is without effect at lower doses or in persons without abnormal oxidation levels.
grade-b - - See all 3 studies
grade-c Notable - See study
Notable due to mechanisms, but requires studies with reference drugs and more biomarkers measured.
grade-c Minor - See study
A decrease in oxidation has been noted in persons with impaired glucose tolerance, thought to be associated with the increase in superoxide dismutase activity
grade-c Minor Very High See all 3 studies
Oral ingestion of berries or their extracts tends to reduce oxidative biomarkers and improve antioxidant status either acutely or with daily supplementation
grade-c
Minor
- See all 3 studies
Mixed evidence leaning towards no effect, although a possible antioxidative effect remains possible in persons with high baseline HbA1c or polycystic ovarian syndrome and a prooxidative effect in persons with normal HbA1c.
grade-c Minor Moderate See 2 studies
May increase general oxidation in the body, but seems unreliable in doing so
grade-c Minor - See study
There appears to be a reduction in general oxidation as assessed by biomarkers (reduced glutathione, etc.) associated with supplementation of ginkgo biloba
grade-c Minor Very High See all 3 studies
A decrease in whole body oxidation appears to occur following ingestion of grape seed extract
grade-c Minor - See study
There may be a reduction in oxidation associated with PCOS when the condition is being treated by inositol
grade-c Minor - See study
Appears to reduce oxidative biomarkers, requires more evidence to gauge potency and reliability thereof
grade-c Minor - See study
May decrease biomarkers of oxidation in serum
grade-c Minor Very High See 2 studies
A reduction in oxidative biomarkers has been noted following MSM ingestion
grade-c Minor - See study
Is able to reduce oxidative parameters in the blood when they are measured.
grade-c Minor - See study
Oxidation in the body appears to be reduced, which is thought to be secondary to induction of antioxidant enzymes
grade-c Minor Very High See 2 studies
A reduction in general oxidation is noted following prolonged Pycnogenol supplementation
grade-c Minor Moderate See 2 studies
May reduce oxidative biomarkers in serum and urine, but is a tad unreliable in doing so.
grade-c Minor - See study
A decrease in oxidative biomarkers has been noted following resveratrol supplementation
grade-c - - See study
grade-c - Very High See 2 studies
No significant alterations in whole-body oxidation are apparent
grade-c - - See study
grade-c - - See study
General oxidative parameters do not appear to be significantly altered with supplementation of hesperidin under resting conditions.
grade-c - - See study
There does not appear to be a significant influence on oxidative parameters seen with supplementation of red clover isoflavones.
grade-c - - See study
No significant interaction with biomarkers of general oxidation
grade-d Notable - See study
Requires more evidence, but it appears to reduce oxidative parameters more than other supplements.
grade-d Minor - See study
Oxidative biomarkers in the blood appear to be modestly reduced following supplementation of garlic in persons with high levels of oxidative damage indicative in serum.
grade-d Minor - See study
Can decrease oxidation in the body (assessed via oxidative biomarkers)
grade-d Minor - See study
Appears to reduce oxidative biomarkers in the body, surprisingly not the potency one would expect from in vitro evidence
grade-d Minor - See study
Reduction in general oxidation seems to be secondary to antioxidant enzyme induction
grade-d Minor - See study
A decrease in general oxidation occurs following lemon balm ingestion
grade-d Minor - See study
A decrease in general oxidation has been noted with punicalagins
grade-d Minor - See study
A decrease in serum oxidative parameters tends to be noted following Mate consumption
grade-d - - See study
grade-d - - See study
Overall oxidation in serum as assessed by TRAP has failed to be significantly influenced by PQQ supplementation in otherwise healthy adults.