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Muscle Oxygenation

Muscle oxygenation is the rate of oxygen usage and supply to a working muscle tissue. This is usually tied in with nitric oxide metabolism, and increased muscle oxygenation should lead to increased anaerobic muscle performance.

Research analysis led by Kamal Patel.
All content reviewed by the Examine.com Team. Published: Jul 5, 2013
Last Updated:

Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what supplements affect muscle oxygenation
Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Notes
grade-c Notable - See study
The one study to measure muscle oxygenation in high intensity exercise noted quite a remarkable increase in oxygenation in healthy athletes; this needs to be replicated
grade-c Minor - See study
A decrease in muscle oxygenation has been noted during occlusion, but not during squat exercise; practical significance of these results unknown
grade-c Minor - See study
The rate of muscle deoxygenation is reduced with attenuation of acidosis (which can be achieved with sodium bicarbonate), and in later stretches of exercise this can be manifest as a relative increase in oxygenation
grade-c Minor - See study
There appears to be a minor increase in overall oxygen consumption during physical training (anaerobic) to fatigue associated with betaine supplementation, although this was alongside increased work volume (which may be the causative factor).
grade-c - - See study
grade-c - - See study
No significant effects on oxygenation during exercise or simulated altitude tests
grade-d Minor - See study
An increase in muscle ATP production via aerobic means was noted in men given 6g citrulline daily, but this appeared to be attenuated with time.