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Oxidation of LDL

LDL oxidation is known to contribute to artherosclerosis (plaque buildup in arteries), and reducing the rate of LDL oxidation reduces artherosclerosis. Antioxidants that are potent enough and stay in serum can reduce this oxidation.

Research analysis led by Kamal Patel.
All content reviewed by the Examine.com Team. Published: Jul 5, 2013
Last Updated:

Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what supplements affect oxidation of ldl
Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Notes
grade-b Notable Very High See all 8 studies
The decrease in LDL oxidation seen with olive oil phenolics appears to be of notable potency due to its reliability (occurring in both healthy persons and diseased persons, chronically and acutely) and a reduction in LDL oxidation rates can exceed 25% in some studies with low intakes of olive phenolics (enough from virgin olive oil consumption)
grade-b - High See all 5 studies
The majority of evidence does not find a significant alteration in the rate of LDL oxidation with cocoa or its isolated flavanols relative to placebo.
grade-c Notable Moderate See 2 studies
In high risk individuals, the reduction has been noted to be 17.0+/-5.5%
grade-c Notable Very High See 2 studies
The decrease in oxidation of LDL seen with either licorice of isolated Glabridin appears to exceed 20% and is more than other supplements
grade-c Minor Very High See 2 studies
There appears to be a reduction in LDL oxidation, with the one chronic study suggesting a 27% reduction (the acute study noting less of a protective effect).
grade-c Minor - See study
One study has noted less small particles of LDL, indicative of less LDL oxidation; possibly protective effects
grade-c Minor Moderate See 2 studies
A possible decrease in LDL oxidation rates, although this does not appear to be overly reliable.
grade-c Minor - See study
There is a mild increase in particulate size of LDL cholesterol, indicative of less oxidation of these particulates and less atherogenecity, with hesperidin supplementation.
grade-c Minor Moderate See 2 studies
A possible reducing effect on the oxidation of LDL, secondary to reduction of oxidation in general; however, this appears to be unreliable
grade-c Minor Moderate See 2 studies
Mixed evidence, possibly an effect but needs to be replicated
grade-c Minor Moderate See 2 studies
While vitamin E appears to retain the potential to reduce LDL oxidation, it requires high doses as lower doses are not significantly effective.
grade-c Minor Moderate See 2 studies
Although there may not be an inherent protective effect and normalizing a deficiency does not per se reduce oxidation of LDL, if the body becomes more insulin sensitivity when restoring a deficiency then zinc may indirectly reduce oxidation.
grade-c - - See study
No significant influence on the rates of LDL oxidation when compared to placebo supplementation.
grade-c - - See study
No significant protective or augmenting effects on the oxidation rates of LDL-C.
grade-c - Very High See 2 studies
No significant influence detected
grade-c - - See study
Does not appear to influence oxidation rates of LDL cholesterol
grade-c - - See study
No significant alterations in the overall oxidation of LDL cholesterol associated with supplementation of betaine.
grade-c - Very High See all 3 studies
No significant influence on the oxidation rates of LDL cholesterol
grade-d Minor - See study
Appeared to increase oxidation of LDL according to one study, which was abolished by exercise but noted to be a concern during rest.
grade-d Minor - See study
One study has shown that 1 g green tea catechins taken once slowed the oxidation of LDL 1 hour post-ingestion.
grade-d Minor - See study
Supplementation of saffron appears to be capable of reducing LDL oxidation when tested ex vivo in both healthy controls and persons with cardiovascular disease, although to a mild degree.
grade-d - - See study
No apparent effect in one study using turmeric.
grade-d - - See study
No significant influence on oxidation rates of LDL cholesterol