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Symptoms of Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a disorder with positive (hallucinations and delusions) and negative (anhedonia and depression) symptoms alongside slight cognitive impairment, and some supplements are currently being investigated to aid in these symptoms.

Research analysis led by Kamal Patel.
All content reviewed by the Examine.com Team. Published: Jul 5, 2013
Last Updated:

Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what supplements affect symptoms of schizophrenia
Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Notes
grade-b Notable High See all 4 studies
While the magnitude of benefit seen with Sarcosine is comparable to both D-serine and glycine, it appears to require a much lower (more practical) dose than does glycine and is more reliable than D-serine
grade-b Minor Moderate See all 6 studies
D-Serine supplementation is able to reduce symptoms of schizophrenia (more efficacy on negative and cognitive symptoms rather than positive) in a dose-dependent manner between 30-120mg/kg, but possibly due to the unreliable increases in blood D-serine its benefits are also unreliable
grade-b - Very High See all 3 studies
At the dose that showed anti-depressant effects, inositol failed to improve any symptoms associated with schizophrenia.
grade-c Minor Moderate See all 4 studies
Symptoms of schizophrenia appear to be reduced with supplementation of ginkgo biloba (EGb-761 at 240-360mg daily), although all studies currently use ginkgo alongside standard antipsychotic therapy. It appears effective as an add-on
grade-c Minor - See study
Is able to decrease symptoms of schizophrenia similar to both D-serine and sarcosine, but this occurs at an impractically high dose (minimum effective dose being around 800mg/kg bodyweight)
grade-c Minor - See study
Activation and anxiety symptoms of schizophrenia appear to be reduced with high dose (400mg) Theanine
grade-c - - See study
The addition of low dose chromium to antipsychotic therapy in schizophrenic persons failed to augment the efficacy of treatment.
grade-d Minor - See study
One study found an improvement but needs to be replicated.
grade-d Minor Moderate See 2 studies
These trials don't look at impact on development of schizophrenia, but of symptom reduction in those with schizophrenia.
grade-d Minor - See study
One small study found a decrease in a non-standard measure of symptoms of schizophrenia in people with folate deficiency when using methylfolate.